Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   

The Warburton Website

 Home          Clans        Resources        My Genealogy      DNA Project     About DNA     Old Home Page



2006-2010 Ray Warburton         Privacy Policy       Web site objectives         Contact me 


The Warburton Society Join Page


The Guild of One Name Studies




DNA Heritage


 
Project Fund
Donations will be used to fund DNA tests

 




The DNA Project 

  1. The Warburton DNA Project
  2. How to Participate
  3. Project Fund
  4. DNA Heritage
  5. Commentary on Results
  6. Warburton Haplotypes
  7. My Mitochondria

The text of this section, together with the results chart, and the text of the following section About DNA Testing  is available as a PDF document called The Warburton Surname DNA Project.

The Warburton DNA Project

DNA testing has recently begun to play an important role in genealogical research, as an addition to traditional methods. A Y-chromosome DNA test will determine the probability that the testee shares a common ancestor with any other Warburton who as taken the test. This common ancestor will have lived within the last 700 years i.e. the period during which the name has been in use. Therefore I intend it should play a central role in my One-name Study. For each Warburton clan identified by the study I plan to identify the typical Y-chromosome profile of that clan. This requires the identification of 2 similar profiles from descendants of the clan's oldest common ancestor.

At this stage the project is only seeking holders of the Warburton surname. However, if you believe your name is derived from Warburton, and you wish to test your assumption, you will be welcome to participate.

Before contributing you may want to learn more about DNA testing. My own explanation can be found in the About DNA Testing section of this site. You will also find some references.  

The project will aim to provide other information:

         Each DNA includes a predicted haplotype. The historical background for each distinct Warburton haplotype will be documented.

         Some DNA profiles may be associated with specific localities. This could be particularly useful in helping New World Warburtons trace their roots.

         The degree of variation between the profiles in a clan will give an indication of the time since the clan’s common ancestor lived. This will indicate whether there were multiple adopters of the Warburton name in the Middle Ages, or if most distinct clans originate from later, non-paternal events. I discuss ‘non-parental events ‘ in The Significance of Distinct Profiles below.

The success of the project depends on numbers of Warburtons participating. Because it tests the Y-chromosome, only males can be tested. However female genealogists can get involved by testing a male relative. Also because a change in a 43 marker DNA profile will only occur on average once every 12 generations it is only necessary to test one male from each family. I would recommend you chose the oldest available male.  In fact where a relationship is already known, it is unnecessary for  anyone closer than 3rd cousins to take the test as it would yield little information, but runs the risk of finding an unknown break in the line.

Top

How to Participate

Enrolment in the DNA Project is now possible without taking a test and brings with it membership of the Warburton Society. Just click here to go to the DNA Heritage join page, or if you have a query or comment click here to send me an email. If you would wish to take the test simply select to enrol with a test. The project uses the full 43-marker test. Because this project is part of the Advantage program at DNA Heritage a Y-chromosome DNA test taken as part of this project costs $149 US (a $50 discount on the standard price). As an alternative Ancestry currently offer a DNA test at just $79 for 37 markers for subscribers. If you already subscribe to Ancestry this may be a cheaper option. You can enrol without a test and send me your results and I will include them in the project

However, before proceeding we should explore your known Warburton ancestors to see if a link can be established with a known family. This might obviate the need for a test as I may already have a profile for your family.

The process of testing, payment, and notification of individual results is being run by DNA Heritage. DNA Heritage will confirm your enrolment by email, and issue an invoice which can be paid online by credit or debit card. On receipt of payment they will send a test kit to your home. When the test kit arrives you simply perform the test, which involves taking a swab from inside your cheek, and mail the kit back. There are two options. You can either mail the kit direct to the laboratory in Utah, or mail it to the UK office in Wiltshire for onward dispatch. There will be addressed envelopes for each.. You will then be informed when the result is available, and how to access it. I get copies of all DNA Heritage communications.

I will include your results in my Results spreadsheet and in my Commentary on Results. I will also identify which Warburton clan your profile is associated with.

I may also place the results on 2 databases for comparison purposes. These are Ybase, a free, open global genealogical resource that is closely linked to DNA Heritage, and Ysearch, a similar resource from Family Tree DNA. In each case the DNA result will only be identified by a code and place of origin, and of course that it is a Warburton profile. See my Privacy Policy. Your participation signifies your agreement to me using your result in this way.

Top

Project Fund

I have established a Project Fund so I can invite anyone to take a test whose profile is of more interest to the project than to themselves.  I can also offer a Warburton Y-chromosome DNA test (normally $189) to anyone who donates $150 to the fund. Just click here to go to the Project Page at DNA Heritage, and click the 'Make a Donation' button. Then send me an email by clicking here stating the name, postal address, and optionally email address of the person to be tested and I will get a test kit sent, and when the time comes, pay the invoice from the Project Fund. If a group of you wish to pool donations to fund a test that's fine. 

Also simple donations are welcome. Every little helps. If you would like to support the project by making a donation to the fund please click here. This will take you to the appropriate page at DNA Heritage where you can make your donation via credit card, or PayPal.    

Top

DNA Heritage

DNA Heritage has been chosen as the testing site for the Warburton Surname DNA Project for the following reasons:

1.      They offer a very comprehensive 43-marker test at a reasonable price. If the project administrator is a typical Warburton it is possible that many participants will conform to the most common Western European DNA profile (called the Atlantic Modal Haplotype). It is therefore important to start with a high-resolution test that will differentiate participants sufficiently.

2.      At $199 for the 43-marker test (reduced to $149 for participants in the Warburton surname project), they offer a competitive price.

3.      They provide a service for administrating and reporting on a Surname project.

4.      They are a British company, but conduct all their testing in the USA.

Top  

Commentary on Results

Each participant will receive his own results in a report from DNA Heritage. As Project Administrator I will also see their results and will be able to compare them with other results. A table of results can be found here.

The following commentary assumes knowledge of some DNA concepts. These are explained on the About DNA page of this site.

I now have results from 16 participants, plus a few possibly related profiles from other sources.  These results have produced 10 different profiles. There are also four different haplotypes.

In addition I have the results of two possible Warburtons, one from Ysearch, and one supplied independently. The owner of the Ysearch Y-chromosome has a family legend that that his ancestor was a Warburton who used his mother’s maiden name to escape certain lady problems when emigrating to America. As yet this profile has no match so further genealogical research and/or a genetic match with a genuine Warburton are needed to confirm this. The second profile from a man who is believed to be descended from the brother of a man who adopted the Warburton name, and so his profile is potentially the profile of the Warburton descendants (see The Mongan Warburtons in Warburton Clans).

To understand the significance of these results I will describe my approach to analysing the results, before discussing the significance of distinct profiles, and describing matched profiles. There is also a section explaining the various haplotypes, and one on my mitochondria (female ancestry).

Analysis

The first task in analysing the results is to group matching results. A match occurs when the number of individual marker mismatches is low enough to have occurred in the 750 years, or 20 generations, since the first Warburton, based on known marker mutation rates.

The A Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) Calculator is then used to assess the number of generations  back to the common ancestor. I use two calculators that are available on the Internet. The first uses formulae developed by Bruce Walsh and presented in a paper in Genetics to determine the probability of the common ancestor being within any number of generations, given the number of markers, the mutation rate, and the number of mutations. The second,, by Ann Turner, uses a Poisson distribution to determine the probability for any number of mutations given the number of markers, the mutation rate, and the number of transmission events from father to son. As these calculators don’t use identical distributions the results are not identical though they are similar. Also note a generation involves two transmissions. A grandson is two generations from his grandfather, but there are four transmission events between two cousins who share a grandfather.

These calculators need a mutation rate as input.  A paper by John F Chandler in 2006 and documented on Wikipedia states that different markers have been observed to have different mutation rates, varying from 0.055% to 0.8%. However not all the markers from the DNA Heritage test are covered though there are figures for some other markers in the work of Doug MacDonald from 2004. An average of the mutation rates is 0.28%. However DNA Heritage use a rate of 0.3%, and the MRCA calculator at moseswalker.com is saying that the latest research points to a rate of 0.43%.

Based on these rates, the probability of a match given 1 - 5 mismatches in a 43 marker test is as follows. The likely number of generations quoted represent the range from a 40% probability to a 60% probability of the common ancestor being that number of generations back:

  • 1 mismatch:  At a 0.0043 mutation rate the common ancestor probably lived 3.9 to 5.8  generations ago with roughly an 87% probability that the common ancestor was within 10 generations. At a 0.003 mutation rate the common ancestor probably lived 5.5 to 8.1 generations ago and the probability of being within 10 generations drops to about 69%.
  • 2 mismatches:  At a 0.0043 mutation the common ancestor probably lived 6.5 to 8.8 generations ago with roughly an 69% probability that the common ancestor was within 10 generations. At a 0.003 mutation rate the common ancestor probably lived 9.2 to 12.5 generations ago and the probability of being within 10 generations drops to about 45%.
  • 3 mismatches: At a 0.0043 mutation rate the common ancestor probably lived 9.2 to 11.9 generations ago with roughly an 92% probability that the common ancestor was within 20 generations. At a 0.003 mutation rate the common ancestor probably lived 13.1 to 16.9 generations ago and the probability of being within 20 generations drops to about 72%.
  • 4 mismatches: At a 0.0043 mutation rate the common ancestor probably lived 11.9 to 15.0  generations ago with roughly an 82% probability that the common ancestor was within 20 generations. At a 0.003 mutation rate the common ancestor probably lived 17.0 to 21.5 generations ago and the probability of being within 20 generations drops to about 54%
  • 5 mismatches:  At a 0.0043 mutation rate the common ancestor probably lived 14.8 to 18.2  generations ago with roughly an 69% probability that the common ancestor was within 20 generations. At a 0.003 mutation rate the common ancestor probably lived 21.1 to 26.1 generations ago and the probability of being within 20 generations drops to about 35%

Six to eight mismatches combined this with a shared surname might a common ancestor, but more than that would indicate the participants are probably not related.

An apparent match, but where the surnames are different, could be evidence of an illegitimate birth where the father was a Warburton, but because mutations occur in both directions it is possible  for a match to be purely random. Additional evidence would be needed to confirm a link.

The next step is to analyse each group, or clan of matching profiles in conjunction with known genealogy. The two objectives of this analysis will  be to estimate how long ago this clan adopted the Warburton name, and to build a tool that will aid genealogical research.Both these objectives will require many more results than are currently available.

Estimates of the time of adoption will be based primarily on the amount of variability and genetic distance evidenced amongst the matched profiles. Greater variability and genetic distance implies an earlier adoption. Results will be cross checked with known genealogy where possible.

The aid to genealogical research will be in the form of a phylogenetic tree for each clan. This is a form of family tree which shows where and when individual marker mutations can have occurred. In this way new results can be matched to specific parts of the tree, rather than the tree as a whole, giving a more precise indication where common ancestors may be found.

Finally I would hope to determine if there is truth in the premise that Sir Peter de Dutton was the only original adopter of the Warburton name. It is inevitable that over the last 750 years events such as adoptions or illegitimate births will mean many Warburtons no longer carry the Y-chromosome of Peter de Dutton, even if such events do not deny their link to the original family. But if a significant proportion (circa 50%) of modern Warburtons show they have a good probability of sharing a common ancestor around 750 years ago, and no other strong clans of similar age emerge, then this would support the premise of Norman Warburton’s book.

The Significance of Distinct Profiles 

The significance of 10 un-matched profiles is that 9 separate individuals have adopted the Warburton name at some point in the last 750 years.  It is worth reviewing the situations by which such adoptions might occur (the earliest ancestor of one participant is known to be illegitimate).

Initially when surnames were first being required to aid feudal record keeping, around the time when Sir Peter de Dutton changed his name, it is quite conceivable that others from the Warburton estates, or the village of Warburton also decided to adopt the name of their place of birth.

Since then others may have taken the Warburton name rather than their father’s.  Such an occasion is referred to as a 'non-parental event'. Examples include both adoption and illegitimacy.

Adoption usually occurred when a widow with sons remarried. Often, though not always, the sons would take their new fathers name. Less common would be when an estate was inherited through a daughter. The Warburtons of Arley are an example of this. When the estate passed via a niece to the Egerton family they changed their name to Egerton-Warburton. Had the Egerton-Warburton dynasty at Arley Hall not ended when the inheritance again passed down the female line, the Egerton might have eventually been dropped. As it was (as I noticed on a recent visit to Arley Hall) the Egerton was often dropped informally, for example in the cast list of plays they put on at the Hall in the 19th century.

Another example is Charles Mongan Warburton, Bishop of Cloyne in Ireland, who started his life as a Mongan and changed his name to Warburton( the name of his maternal cousins) in 1792 (see The Mongan Warburtons in Warburton Clans).

Illegitimacy would include the case of unmarried mothers. In this case the child might  take either the mother's name or the father’s name. These baptisms should be identifiable in the parish records, where illegitimacy seems to occur quite frequently. However if a wife should conceive by another man she might pass off the child as the child of her husband.  Indeed this could be a deliberate ploy to give an infertile husband an heir. In this case it would be undetectable in the records.

It is estimated that in each generation the rate of ‘non-paternity events’ is 1-2%. Since the Warburton name is 750 years old, if we assume a generation every 30 years, there have been 25 generations of Warburtons. Therefore it is possible that 50% of modern Warburtons have a non-paternity event somewhere in their history.

The Warburton Profiles 

So far I have uncovered 9 different Warburton profiles, including my own, that have no chance of sharing a common male ancestor in the last 750 years, or even 7500 years, with either me or each other. I also have a 10th profile that may also prove to belong to a Warburton clan. Only two of the profiles have been encountered more than once. These profiles and the Warburton clans to which they relate are as follows:      

1.      Two results are from The Warburtons of Garryhinch. This clan consists of the descendants of three brothers who were present in Ireland in the second half of the 17th century. The results come from descendants of two of the three brothers, so their common ancestor is about 9 generations back. There were 4 mismatches over 43 markers (2 in the same multi-copy marker). I use a mutation rate of .0028, which means that whilst 4 mutations is slightly up on what one might expect, it would still occur in 10% of such situations, so I believe this profile is proved to be a marker for the whole of the clan. Furthermore the family claims kinship with the Warburtons of Arley and although there is nothing to corroborate this, the claim has at times been accepted by the family at Arley. Therefore it is possible that this profile is that of the Warburtons of Arley. It would take matches with subjects outside the Garryhinch clan to increase this possibility. The predicted haplotype of this profile is J2. 

2.      My own profile, from The Warburtons of Hale Barns is matched with several others. My research into possible links is documented in My Genetic Links under My Genealogy. I have also produced a Phylogenetic Tree for the clan. The haplotype of this clan is R1b1b2. The matched profiles are found in the following clans (letters refer to the Phylogenetic Tree):

  • The Descendants of Henry Warburton of Ashton-Upon-Mersey (A). This profile is closest to all the others and is therefore used as the base for calculations. My own profile has one mismatch from it. It is the only situation where a possible link has been established, with a common ancestor 9 generations ago.
  • The Descendants of George Warburton of Widnes (B). This profile has one mismatch from the base and two from my profile. Genealogically the common ancestor must also be at least 9 generations ago, and is probably the same as for (A).
  • The Descendants of Hamlet Warburton of Warrington (C). This profile has three mismatches from the base. Genealogically the common ancestor must be at least 11 generations ago as all more recent possibilities can be discounted.
  • The Descendants of George Warburton and Mary Chantler (D). This profile has four mismatches from the base. Genealogically the common ancestor must be at least 11 generations ago as all more recent possibilities can be discounted. This profile also has five mismatches from (C) suggesting the common ancestor of (C) and (D) is 15-18 generations ago.
  • I was contacted by a Warbritton (E) from Texas wondering if Warbritton derives from Warburton. He has a profile that has 2 differences from the base. Warbritton appears several times in Ancestry transcriptions of census entries, but is virtually absent in modern Britain. It is slightly more frequent in the USA. The close match would appear to confirm the link between the two names, though the change might be by design rather than accident. There is a suggestion the name was adopted to signify allegiance during the American War of Independence. No actual evidence to explain the link has yet been found.
  • I found a profile on Ybase that differs in only one marker from the descendant of Henry Warburton of Ashton-Upon-Mersey. It originates from a William Hunter (F)  born circa 1861 in Lancashire. There is a possibility this being a random match, but it is also possible , especially given his origins, that he has a Warburton in his ancestry. There are also a few close DNA matches on Ancestry which may be random, but might signify a link through a ‘non-paternal’ event.

3.      Three results are from The Warburtons of Warburton. Of these 2 match. Their common ancestor is William Warburton (1733-1822), who is 6 generations back from the participants.  One of these  participants is related to Norman Warburton, author of Warburton: The Village and the Family, in which he also published his own tree back to the 16th century in Warburton village. The predicted haplotype is I1a -AS13 which is typical of the Anglo Saxons. The third result is a mismatch, and is haplotype R1b. The identified common ancestor of all three participants is 8 generations back, and is the grandfather of William (1733-1822). The mismatch implies either an error in the tree, or the mismatched profile was introduced by an unrecorded non-paternal event in one of the 10 links from William (1733-1822), up to his grandfather, and down to the third participant. It is still not certain which profile is the original clan profile.          

4.      A result from The Warburtons of Bowdon and Timperley relates to a family who, like my own ancestors, have an association with Bowdon Parish dating back to before 1600. Current on-line haplotype predictors identify the haplotype as I2b1 Continental with a 69% chance of being Continental 1.

5.      A result from The Warburtons of Sandbach relates to the family of Ralph Warburton who was born circa 1817 in Sandbach, Cheshire to a father named Joseph. The predicted haplotype is R1b. One result comes from a participant in Australia whose earliest known ancestor was born in the Rochdale, Lancashire area circa 1770. This clan has not yet been documented The predicted haplotype is R1b.

6.   One result comes from a participant in Australia whose earliest known ancestor was born in the Rochdale, Lancashire area circa 1770. This clan has not yet been documented. The predicted haplotype is R1b.

7.      One result comes from a participant whose earliest known ancestor was born in 1820 in Stockport to a father named Josiah. This clan has not yet been documented. The predicted haplotype is R1b. There is some evidence that this might come from an illegitimacy and father Josiah is a face saving white lie.

8.   One result comes from a line which appeared in Nottinghamshire in the 19th century, with the father said to be born in 1809. There is no earlier evidence of the family in Nottinghamshire, and they probably moved there to work in the coal mines. Their origin is uncertain. The predicted haplotype is R1b.

9.      One result comes from a descendant of John Charles Warburton born in 1808 in Wilmslow, Cheshire, the illegitimate son of Alice, the daughter on Peter Warburton and Alice Holt. It is not surprisingly unique. In due course traditional genealogical research may determine which clan Peter belongs to.

10.      The Mongan profile provided by the Mongans of Australia may in due course be proved to be the profile of the descendants of Charles Terence Mongan Warburton, the Bishop of Cloyne.

Even if a non-paternity rate of 2% were to mean that 50% of modern Warburtons have such an event in their ancestry, the number of unmatched profiles, compared with matched ones, is beginning to suggest that more than one person adopted the Warburton name about 750 years ago. This suggestion is supported by the depth of some of the associated family trees. However it will only be when matches are found  and related to the documentary evidence that we will have a better understanding of the origin of these profiles.  

Top

Warburton Haplotypes  

Over recent years researchers have used a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) test on either mitochondria or the Y-chromosome to divide the world’s population into a relatively small number of clans, defined by haplotypes.  The clans are sometimes called haplogroups. By studying very slowly changing elements of DNA they have determined sequences of change, and the age of specific changes. By combining this data with the archaeological record they have determined sequences of human migration around the world since the first modern humans left Africa 50-80,000 years ago (depending on who you read).

A number of popular books have appeared on this subject in recent years by writers such as Brian Sykes (‘Seven Daughters of Eve’, and ‘‘Blood of the Isles’) and Stephen Oppenheimer (‘Out of Eden’ and ‘The Origins of the British’). See References. To try and help, Sykes and Oppenheimer give the clans, or haplogroups names but they are inconsistent so I will ignore them.

Although the Series Tandem Repeat (STR) test we use for this project is different from the SNP test, it provides a prediction for your most likely haplotype. I have had a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) test and determined that my haplotype is R1b1b2. The designation of some of the haplotypes has changed over time so I am using the most recent designation.

R1b1b2 is a large subcategory of R1b. This covers 40-70% of the population of continental Western Europe rising to 82% in Ireland. There are some small sub-groups of R1b3, but the majority are not further delineated and are identified by the star. Hopefully the future will produce defining mutations to further differentiate them.

In the meantime Stephen Oppenheimer, in The Origins of the British, uses STR results to further subdivide haplotypes, though he doesn’t  publish the actual numbers so you can categorise yourself. That’s available as a chargeable service.
Oppenheimer’s subdivisions of haplotype R1b includes a grouping which matches the Atlantic Modal Type (AMH). This is defined by the values for six of the markers in the STR test which are most common along the Atlantic seaboard. I conform to this exactly so I can determine which of Oppenheimer’s sub groups I am in.  Some R1b profiles in the DNA Project match the AMH so I am unsure which of Oppenheimer’s sub groups they belong to.

It should be noted that the underlying theme of Stephen Oppenheimer’s book is that most British Y-chromosome lines have been present since the Stone Age, and later invasions, even that of the Anglo-Saxons had relatively limited genetic impact. The Celtic ‘invasion’ he sees as merely a cultural migration. He hasn’t identified any specific Norman markers that link back to Normandy, but suggests that due to intermarriage they may not be entirely Norwegian.

Due to the work of Dr Ken Nordtvedt haplotype I can be subdivided based on the STR result. There is a haplogroup predictor  which will further predict the subgroup (subclade) of anyone in haplogroup I.

The following discussions of the origins of the Warburton haplotypes are primarily based on Oppenheimer and Nordtvedt. The various haplotypes are also discussed in some detail on Wikepedia, (google "haplotype nn", where nn is the haplotype you wish to view) and at eupedia.com, though the latter embodies a controversial theory on R1b (see below).

R1b 

Members of the R1b haplogroup, are believed to be descendants of the first modern human migrants into Europe some 35-40,000 years ago. This is known as the Upper Palaeolithic migration and was characterised by the Aurignacian culture.  During the last Ice Age they retreated to a number of refuges in southern Europe. The mutation that defines R1b occurred in the Iberian refuge. As the Ice Age retreated groups from the refuges began to repopulate Europe, though the process was interrupted by a fifteen hundred year cold period called the Younger Dryas. which ended 11,500 years ago.

R1b1b2

R1b1b2 includes the major proportion of the R1b haplogroup.

The Atlantic Modal Haplotype 

This sub-group of R1b originates from the Iberian refuge. The first post Ice Age settlers remained in Britain (which was attached to the continent at the time) during the Younger Dryas, but when a warmer climate returned a new wave moved north from the Iberian refuge. It was this wave that included the people identified by the AMH. The sub-group is still most common in the Basque country but it is frequent all along the coast  of Western Europe including Western Britain and the Channel coasts.  It is present to a lesser extent in Scandinavia.

Haplogroup I originated in Trans-Caucasus and entered Europe before the last Ice Age, and is associated with the Upper Palaeolithic Gravettian culture. During the last Ice Age members of this haplogoup retreated to the Balkan and Ukrainian refuges. Here a number of sub groups evolved. Modern day similarities between the incidence of various haplotype I sub groups in Britain and in Scandinavia and Germany have been cited as evidence of recent invasions of Viking and Anglo-Saxon elites. However although some intrusions can be identified, especially when I sub groups are further divided using STR analysis, the majority of the I haplogroup migration into Britain occurred in Neolithic, and pre-Neolithic  times.

I1a-AS13

The traditional view was that I1a evolved in the Balkan refuge, and following the Younger Dryas they migrated into North West Europe.

Oppenheimer defines seven sub-groups based on STRs with different concentrations in Northern Germany and Scandinavia. He is able to identify groups within Britain who arrived in Neolithic times (or earlier) as part of the original north-western migration of I1a, and groups that represent invasions of Vikings or Anglo-Saxons in historic times. It makes up about 11% of the British population, mainly in England and Scotland.

However recent research, including that of Ken Nordtvedt, suggests that I1 evolved much more recently in northern Europe, maybe 4-6,000 years ago, and therefore its origin during and before the last Ice Age is uncertain. I1a - AS13 is a subgroup that originates in Denmark or North Germany and therefore was introduced into Britain by the Anglo-Saxons.

I2b - Cont 1

A profile originally reported as I1c was judged to be I2b1-Cont (Continental) by the Haplotype Predictor with a 69% chance of being Continental 1. The area of its most dense presence is Northwest Germany and Netherlands, then up into Denmark, and even Southern Sweden and Norway. A good amount is also found in the British Isles, perhaps brought there by the Germanic and Scandinavian invader/immigrants in the historic era.

J2

J2 is  the most predominant sub-group of the J haplotype in Europe. It may have originated in the Levant before the last Ice Age. After the ice retreated it spread into Europe along the Mediterranean, around Spain and to the British Isles where it is most common in Southern England and Central Scotland. It is considered to be a marker of the Neolithic expansion which brought farming to Europe. This began about 10,000 years ago but reached Britain only about 6,000 years ago.  It is virtually absent from Scandinavia, and both Wales and Ireland, but is present across from Southern England in France.

The Significance of Haplotypes 

Before considering the significance of the haplotypes it should be noted that only one, mine, has been tested. The others are predicted from the STR results and might therefore turn out to be wrong. However by comparing the STR results with near matches on the Ysearch, Ybase, and YHRD databases that have also been tested for SNPs, it is possible to have reasonable confidence in the predictions. Near matches with all the Warburton Rb1 profiles are tested as R1b3, though this is unsurprising since this is such a large group.

Because R1b is so common throughout Western Europe, it is the I haplotypes that  are most commonly used as a marker for various continental invasions, including from Norway the original home of the Normans.

I found some work by Ken Nordtvedt that identifies typical profiles of various I haplotype sub-groups. For example there are some subgroups which are specific to the British Isles and others that are specific to the continent.

The Warburton I1c profile is matched most closely with a continental profile that has its highest frequency in the Netherlands, northwest Germany, and Denmark. This covers the sources of both the Saxon and Danish Viking invasions. There are 7 mismatches, which is the average number of mismatches you would expect  for a common ancestor 1000 years ago assuming 30 years per generation. The chances are still good of a common ancestor 1200 years ago (typical for the Danish invasion), but are less for a common ancestor 1500 years ago (typical for the Saxon invasion).

The Warburton  I1a profile was an even closer match, just 5 mismatches, from a sub-group that shows a number of hits from Switzerland and southern Germany. This is the number of mismatches most typical of a common ancestor 700 years ago.

The Warburton J2 profile has no close matches, though the nearest on Ysearch, with seven mismatches in 32 markers, has tested as J2a. The participant with this profile has documented links to Odard the Norman invader. J2 is absent from Norway. In fact if you plot the journey of the participant's ancestors from Norway to Normandy, and then to north west England, where Odard and his family settled, and finally to Ireland, it is only in Normandy that there is any presence of the J2 haplotype.  So the most likely place the profile was picked up was through intermarriage or inter breeding during the 200 years sojourn in Normandy prior to the invasion of Britain. However while J2s may be rare in the Norse country an individual J2 may well have migrated, or been taken there, so it cannot be certain where it originated. Indeed matching J2 results are needed to discount a much more recent origin.

The various identified Warburton haplotypes have been present in Britain and areas of the near continent for thousands of years. Whilst they may be useful markers for tracking the impact of invasions or migrations they can tell us nothing of individual movements. For example who knows where a mercenary legionnaire in the Roman army may have chosen to retire to. Haplotypes bring an interesting story of ancient origins but have little to say about more recent genealogy. An individual  I1a, J2, or R1b might have British, Viking, Saxon or Norman ancestry.

Top

My Mitochondria

In the same way that the Y-chromosome can be used to identify paternal haplotypes, mitochondria can be used to identify maternal haplotypes. Unlike Y-chromosomes which are found only in males, we all have mitochondria, although the DNA is passed only down the female line.

Mitochondria are quite small sequences of DNA relative to a complete chromosome. They contain about 16,500 elements or bases. Two sections of “junk” DNA are used for phylogenetic purposes. These are labelled hyper variable segments 1 (HSV1) and 2 (HSV2). HSV1 looks at 4-500 bases starting at position 16001, and is the least volatile of the two sections. HSV2 is typically used to fine tune results from HSV1, and it was used to help classify the world’s population into 36 clans, and link those clans in the currently accepted phylogenetic tree. The scientific term for a clan is haplogroup. Of the 36 world clans, seven account for about 95% of the population of Europe.

Mitochondrial DNA test results are presented in terms of differences from the Cambridge Reference Model (CRS). The CRS defines a member of haplotype H. Haplotype H is called Helena in Bryan Sykes’ book, ‘The Seven Daughters of Eve’, and is the most common type in Europe. The use of girl’s names for the clans derives from the fact that there must have been a single woman who first had this specific mutation, and from whom all modern bearers of that mutation are descended.  

The Oxford Ancestors test that I had done looks at positions 1-400 in HSV1 and this is sufficient to classify a person in the existing tree. Just two differences from the CRS classify me in haplotype J or Jasmine. These are at positions 069 (actually 16069 but the 16000 is dropped for simplicity), and 126. I have one other mutation at 366 but this merely an extension of my Jasmine identity.  

Jasmine is a complex haplotype with several defined sub-groups. The other six main halogroups found in Europe are all believed to have existed, or derived from groups that existed in Europe before the last Ice Age. Jasmine, however originated in the Near Middle East (possibly the Caucasus) and only moved into Europe when Neolithic farmers began to move into Europe 10,000 years ago. In fact the presence of Jasmine in Europe, but in relatively small numbers (10% of the population) alongside the descendants of the earlier hunter-gatherer population of Europe answers an old historical argument. Did the gradual adoption of farming across Europe represent the migration of an idea, or the migration of farming peoples who replaced the indigenous population? The answer lies between the two. There was a migration of people, but they did not replace the existing population and the idea of farming spread into the indigenous population.  

I found an interesting MSc paper on the Jasmine haplotype by an Estonian called Piia Serk. This paper suggests that the haplotype originated much earlier than Bryan Sykes’ book stated, maybe 25,000 years ago. It found the major Jasmine subtypes present in the Near East as well as Europe.  

My additional #366 mutation was not found in the Near East, but was present in 7 samples in Eastern Europe (5 of them in Albania). The Oxford Ancestors database shows 6 Jasmines with the #366 mutation in the England, and 3 in the USA.  Unfortunately the Oxford Ancestors database only allows exact searches so I cannot see how many people have the #366 mutation and something else. I was however contacted by a lady who originated in Scotland who has the #366 and #325 mutations, and she pointed me to a paper that identified 3 more #366, #325s mutations in Ireland. To complicate things even more there is a #366mutation in the Helena clan.  

There are two possible scenarios to explain the presence of the #366 mutation in Eastern Europe and the British Isles. Firstly the #366 mutation occurred soon after the Jasmines moved into Europe and so they are spread all across Europe. This would be confirmed if #366s mutations are found elsewhere in Europe. It is just possible there was a direct migration from Eastern Europe to the British Isles (the wife of a Roman legionnaire?  – or is my imagination getting the better on me?). 

The second explanation is that there was a second #366 mutation in the British Isles. The #366 mutation in the Helena clan does suggest that #366 may be a hot spot more liable to mutation than other locations.  

Top



Links

There are a number of links scattered through the text on the various pages. They are listed here for quick access.

Introduction

Message Boards:
Ancestry
Rootsweb
Genealogy.com

LostCousins
Warburton: The Village and the Family by Norman Warburton
UK National Health Service Register
US 1990 census
National Trust website


Warburton Clans

Warburton Family Trees
Index


The  Warburtons of Arley Hall Chart PDF
The Warburtons of Garryhinch
Chart PDF
  chronicle
The Warburtons of Warburton Village Chart1 Chart2 Chart3 Chart4 Chart5 Chart6 PDF
The Warburtons of Edenfield
Chart PDF
The Mongan Warburtons
Chart PDF
The Warburtons of Hale Barns
Chart1  Chart2  Chart3  Chart4  Chart5  PDF
  Genetic links
  The Descendants of William Warburton of Ashton-upon-Mersey
Chart PDF
  The Descendants of William Warburton of Widnes
Chart PDF
  The Descendants of Hamlet Warburton of Warrington
Chart PDF
The Descendants of Bancroft Warburton
Chart PDF
  notes
The Warburtons of New South Wales
Chart  PDF
The Descendants of Alice Warburton of Wilmslow
Chart PDF
The Shocklach Warburtons 
Chart1 Chart2 Chart3 Chart4 Chart5 PDF
The Weaverham Warburtons
Chart PDF 
  Warburton's War: The Life of Wing Commander Adrian Warburton, DSO, DFC (on Amazon)
  Wikipedia entry      
The Warburtons of Sandbach
Chart PDF
The Warburtons of Turton
Chart1 Chart2 Chart3 PDF
The Warburtons of Coppenhall Chart PDF
The Warburtons of West Virginia
Chart  PDF
The Warburtons of Tottington
 Descendant Report
 Descendant Chart with Index

Warburton Resources

Misspellings in Censuses
Bowdon Families
Mobberley Families
Wilmslow Families
Miscellaneous Parish Register Information
Hale Chapel Baptism Record
Crewe Estate Records notes
Stamford Estate Records notes
Warburton Landholdings in Hale
Warburtons named Josiah
Warburton Wills
Wills sources
Oaths and Taxes
Precis of Warburton: The Village and the Family
Marriage in the Cathedral

My Genealogy

My Family Tree
My Fan Chart
Warburton Genealogy Notes
My Genetic Links
Ann's Ancestors
James Warburton

Useful sites:
Ancestry
FamilySearch

Genes Reunite
d
Family Relatives
Cheshire BMD
Lancashire BMD
FamilySearch 
GENUKI
FindMyPast
FreeBMD
Chester Records Office
 
wills
 tithes

The DNA Project

The Warburton Surname DNA Project
Join Page
Ybase
Ysearch
Results Table
Phylogenetic Tree

MRCA Calculators:
Moses Walker

Ann Turner
BG Galbraith

Haplogroup Predictor
Eupedia.com


Piia Serk paper on the Jasmine haplotype 

About DNA Testing

My Genetic Links

DNA Heritage:
Tutorial
Masterclass
FAQs

Books (links to Amazon):
Stephen Oppenhiemer:
Out of Eden’
'The Origins of the British'
Bryan Sykes:
‘The Seven Daughters of Eve’
Adam’s Curse’
'Blood of the Isles'
Richard Dawkins:
The Selfish Gene
Chris Pomery:
DNA and Family History’ and
website

Others:
Davenport website
ISOGG.
Oxford Ancestors'